In the EU, we still largely rely on fossil fuels for our overall energy supply, illustrated by the ratio of fossil fuels in gross available energy (the total energy demand of a country or region). In 2020, fossil fuels made up 70% of gross available energy in the EU, down from 71% in 2019. This percentage has decreased significantly over the last decades; -13% since 1990, the first year for which data are available. This is mostly due to the increase in renewable energy.
In 2020, Malta (97%) was the EU Member State with the highest share of fossil fuels in gross available energy followed by the Netherlands (90%) and Cyprus (89%), Ireland (87%), and Poland (86%). Most of the other Member States had shares between 60% and 85%. Only Sweden (31%), Finland (41%), France (48%), Latvia (57%) and Denmark (59%) had shares below 60%.
Over the past decade, all the EU Member States registered a decrease in their share of fossil fuels in gross available energy. The largest decrease was measured in Estonia (from 91% in 2010 to 66% in 2020; -25%), followed by Denmark (from 81% to 59%; -22%) and Finland (from 57% to 41%; -16%). On the other hand, the smallest decrease was measured in Belgium (from 78% to 76%; -2 pp), followed by Germany (from 81% to 78%; -3%) and Malta (from 100% to 97%; – 3%).
Comparing 2020 with 2019, only two EU Member States increased their share of fossil fuels in gross available energy; Lithuania (+1 pp) and, just marginally, Malta (+0.1 pp). Belgium’s figures remained the same. Among the other countries, the largest decreases were in Estonia (-7 pp), Denmark (-5 pp), followed by Portugal, Latvia, Spain, Bulgaria and Luxembourg (all -4 pp).